单叶型(Integrifolia Group)

Solitary clematis and the whole Clematis Integrifolia Group

作者:Szczepan Marczyński 翻译:李伟

I would like to recommend to all solitary clematis (Clematis integrifolia), along with many cultivars and hybrids selected from it. Though still little known, they are very valuable and attractive on the basis of their long and profuse flowering, healthiness, hardiness and easy culture. They adapt well to all the familiar garden uses, but can also be successfully grown on balconies, patios and in areas of public greenery. They are non-clinging in habit with stems, depending on a variety, between 40 to well over 200 cm long, and will meander through a border and amongst existing plants in a delightful manner, adding interest to shrubs that have finished flowering, such as azaleas. These shrubs flower beautifully but shortly in early spring, and afterwards form a monotonous mass of green until autumn when their leaves variegate. If you grow them together with Clematis integrifolia, and prune clematis to the lowest buds in spring, it will not become noticeable until azaleas flowers are over. In the summer, however, the plant will be veiled with billowing clouds of flowers followed by an attractive crop of ornamental seedheads. Clematis from this group are also charming companions for border roses and other shrubs and prove invaluable in creating groups and borders. When grown without support, they will spread out over the ground creating attractive covers.

我很想推荐solitary clematis(Clematis integrifolia),以及一些品种和选育出的杂交种,尽管它们鲜为人知,但是由于它们花期长,开花多,生长健壮,生命力强和容易种植而显得很珍贵和有吸引力。它们不仅适合于花园栽植,也适合于种植在阳台,露台和公共场所。它们直立生长,无攀援习性,无需支撑物(因品种不同,植株有40到200厘米长),而是以一种很优美的姿态配置在那些花期结束的灌木丛周围,以此增加它们的观赏价值(比如杜鹃花,花很漂亮但花期短且只在早春开花,然后以成片单调的绿色存在直到秋天叶片凋零)。若把它们都种一起,并且在春天修剪枝条直到最底处的芽,它们不引人注意直到杜鹃花期结束,到了夏天,它们便像滚滚云雾一样开出绚烂美丽的花来美化周围环境。这种类型的铁线莲若和玫瑰及其他灌木丛配衬,花开时的景象非常壮观美丽。当没有支持物时,它们就在地面上蔓延,形成非常迷人的地被植物。

Solitary clematis (Clematis integrifolia) is a slender-stemmed, scrambling perennial with stems reaching up to 1 m. From June to September the plant covers with bell-shaped nodding violet flowers with recurving tepals, followed by fluffy seedheads later in the season. The species grows in the wild in southeast Europe, e.g. in Hungary. Generally healthy and hardy, it's quite undemanding and easy to grow. As in the case of other perennials, its stems die down to the ground each year and they should be cut back at the ground level in early spring.
'Alba' is a white-flowered selected form of the species.
A number of very attractive hybrids have been selected from solitary clematis, all retaining the immunity and healthiness of the species.

Solitary clematis (Clematis integrifolia),茎细长,不规则躯干可达1米,花期从6月到9月,花朵紫罗兰色呈低垂漏斗形,被片向后弯曲,在欧洲的东南部有野生资源(如匈牙利),它们健壮且耐寒,很容易种植。因是多年生草本植物,每年茎都会枯萎死亡,应在早春进行基部修剪。Alba是从这些品种中选出的非常美丽的白色花系杂种,具有抗病能力和顽强生命力。

In 1835 J.A. Henderson crossbred Clematis integrifolia with Clematis viticella producing Clematis x diversifolia 'Hendersonii' - a beautiful perennial clematis, semi-herbaceous in habit, the oldest hybrid in cultivation. It has deep bluish-purple bell-shaped slightly nodding flowers with yellow stamens. Free flowering from June to September. It's an excellent companion plant for deciduous and coniferous shrubs.
Many years later the cultivar 'Blue Boy' with slightly darker flowers was obtained through similar crossbreeding.

在1835年,J.A. Henderson用Clematis integrifolia和Clematis viticella杂交,选育出Clematis x diversifolia 'Hendersonii',是一种半草本化,栽培中常见的品种,也是最古老的杂交品种之一,花朵深蓝紫色,呈微低垂钟状,黄色雄蕊,花期是6月到9月,是落叶松树灌木丛的完美配衬。许多年之后,从相同杂交中获得了更深花色的Blue Boy品种。

In 1870 Duran Freres raised Clematis x durandii as a cross between Clematis integrifolia and Clematis lanuginosa. This beautiful hybrid has fairly large (7-14 cm in diameter) deep blue, bell shaped flowers that become flat when fully open. It looks lovely both tied to a support and intermingled with other plants and makes an excellent cut flower.

在1870年,Duran Freres从Clematis integrifolia和Clematis lanuginosa杂交中获得Clematis x durandii,杜兰,深蓝色花,始花时为铃形(直径7-14厘米),后期完全平展打开,当攀附于或搭配于其他植物时非常美丽,是很好的切花材料。

In the 1870's a new seedling originating from a chance cross between Clematis integrifolia and Clematis flammula (Clematis recta) was discovered and given the name Clematis x aromatica. This graceful climber has small, strongly fragrant flowers. Dark bluish-violet sepals contrast nicely with long creamy stamens. It prefers well-lit sunny sites and permeable well-drained soils. On account of its sweet scent it's ideal for planting near windows, park benches and other popular places of social gatherings.

在1870s,在Clematis integrifolia and Clematis flammula (Clematis recta)的杂交体系中偶然发现一颗新品种,命名为Clematis x aromatica,枝条优美,花朵小,有浓郁芳香,萼片深蓝紫色,与长长的奶油状的雄蕊形成很明显的对比,喜阳光充足环境,排水良好的土壤,因花香带有甜甜的香味,很适合种植在窗边,长凳边及其他公共场所。

A number of other attractive forms included in the Integrifolia Group were propagated from wild seedlings, the products of chance crosses of Clematis integrifolia. They are all excellent for perennial borders and as companion plants for shrubs.
'Bluish Violet' – with dark violet-blue flowers;
'Hakuree' – a Japanese cultivar. Slightly scented, bell-shaped flowers of white tinged with lavender are borne from June to September;
'Hanajima' - A slender-stemmed variety originating from Japan. Bell-shaped nodding pink flowers with long twisted tepals are borne from June to September, followed by silky
seed heads.
'Juuli' - An Estonian variety. Purple blue flowers early in the season, in full blossom become blue with a lilac-blue central bar. Golden anthers on white filaments. Very free flowering from July to September. Thrives in all aspects. Hard pruning required.
'Olgae' – blue-violet, slightly-scented flowers;
'Rosea' – vivid pink flowers;

Integrifolia Group中还有一些其他形态优美的品种,是从Clematis integrifolia.的野生种中繁殖的,非常适合做灌木丛的配衬。
'Bluish Violet'是深紫蓝色的花。

In the recent years as an effect of crossbreeding Solitary Clematis with large-flowered varieties many valuable and popular hybrids have been obtained. The following is a particularly attractive on account of its long and profuse flowering:
'Arabella' (1994) – a lovely variety originating from England. From June to October mid-blue flowers with conspicuous cream anthers are abundantly scattered over the whole plant. Very free flowering over a long period. It has raised, non-clinging stems (as in climbing rose), and when no support is provided, it will scramble over the ground. It looks lovely when intermingled with another plants. A hardy cultivar, excellent as ground cover, or for growing on terraces.

最近几年,从Solitary Clematis中获得很多杂交种,有许多非常珍贵的大花品种,及一些常见品种。下面的品种因其花期长且开花多而尤其引人注意。
Arabella' (1994),引自英国的美丽品种,花期从6月到10月,花朵蓝色,带有非常明显的奶油状花药,盛花时布满整个植株。花期很长,茎独立生长,且带有凸起,(就像直立生长的玫瑰花茎),当没有支撑物时就在地面上蔓延生长,配衬其它植物非常漂亮。性耐寒,适合做地被植物或台阶装饰。

Other popular throughout the world varieties include:
'Alionushka' – raised in Ukraine, it has bell-shaped, nodding, rose-pink flowers from June to September. It can grow up to 1-1.5 m in height.
'Pamiat Serdtsa', like 'Alionushka', was raised in Ukraine. The size and looks is also similar, but the flowers are violet-lilac.
'Inspiration' was bred in Holland as a cross between Clematis integrifolia and 'Warszawska Nike'. It has flowers of an unusual hue of dark pink, with twisted tepals and contrasting yellow stamens that bloom from June to September. It's best hard pruned.
Suitable for every aspect.
'Rooguchi' is a charming variety produced in Japan by crossbreeding Clematis integrifolia and Clematis reticulata. In 2001 it created a sensation in Great Britain. Graceful, bell-shaped, deep violet-blue flowers edged in pale mauve are borne incessantly from June to October. Stems don't twine round supports, but they can lean against them. The plant can be either stimulated to grow higher with the help of some string or wire, or left to scramble at ground level. Ideal for meandering through perennials and shrubs, it is also suitable for large containers. Makes a good ground container plant. If there is one drawback with this variety, it is its susceptibility to powdery mildew.
All the described varieties are easy to grow. They will certainly add interest to any garden by filling empty spaces with multicolored carpets throughout the summer.

'Pamiat Serdtsa',和 'Alionushka'一样产自乌克兰,生长高度和形状也很相似,但花色是浅紫罗兰色。
'Inspiration',产于荷兰,是Clematis integrifolia和'Warszawska Nike'.的杂交种,花色独特,呈深红色,被片反卷,与黄色雄蕊形成明显对照,花期从6月到9月,需重修剪,适合于在观赏园艺中作多角度运用。
'Rooguchi'产于日本,花形优美,是Clematis integrifolia和Clematis reticulata的杂交种,在2001年时在英国引起轰动,花朵呈优美的铃铛形状,深蓝紫色,边缘淡紫色呈纵向排列,从6月到10月不间断地开放。茎干不缠绕支撑物,但是倚靠其上而生。他们可以在线或绳的帮助下长的很高,也可以匍匐在地面上生长,理想的情况是覆盖在树桩上和灌木上。适于大容器栽培,形成美丽的盆栽植物,不足的是易得白粉病。