铁线莲专题站

佛罗里达型(Florida Group)

作者:Szczepan Marczyński 翻译:李伟

The exquisite form and striking beauty of the unusual flowers of Clematis florida and its cultivars have a captivating charm that leaves no one untouched. Yet, the plants are rarely encountered in gardens as they can be quite capricious and not easy to grow, which makes them more suitable for connoisseurs or very conscientious gardeners rather than for beginners looking for immediate effect. When planting them you should remember to choose a warm sheltered place and provide a very good drainage. Afterwards, you must supply them with plenty of water and carefully protect against cold in winter, but I can assure you that they are well worth all the trouble.

佛罗里达铁线莲,外形优美,具有不同寻常的美丽,其品种具有迷人的魅力,叶片也是如此。可是,这种植物很少出现在花园中,因为它们的习性变化多样,不太容易养殖,因此适合于那些行家和勤奋认真的园艺工作者们,而不适合于那些急于求成的新手。喜温暖潮湿,排水良好的环境,注意供水充足和冬季保温。但是我肯定它们的美丽值得你的付出。

Clematis florida is native to south and southeast China. It has been cultivated in the gardens in Japan since the 18th century and came to Europe in 1776, brought by Thunberg. It has thin, brittle, woody stems that are lengthwise ribbed and reach up to 2 m. It climbs by means of leaf petioles that twine round the supports. Leaves are generally semi-evergreen, made up of 3-9 lanceolate or ovate leaflets that are deep green during the growth period, and change color to purple-green in autumn. Flowers of 5-10 cm across are set singly on long stems (10-15 cm) growing out of leaf axils. They comprise 4 to 8 oval, slightly wavy edged tepals which are creamy white and have a pale green central bar on the outer side. In autumn flowers turn slightly greenish.

The striking appearance of the blooms is due to its unusually long contrasting stamens consisting of deep crimson-purple, almost black anthers set on filaments that are white at the base and violet at the top. The blooms are borne on new wood - in the garden from June to September, and in a frost-free place - from early May to the end of December. They both open and fade slowly, staying attractive for several weeks.

佛罗里达铁线莲原产地中国的南部和东南部,18世纪以来被引种到日本园林中,1776年被Thunberg.引种到欧洲。茎细长,有明显的纵条纹,茎长能达2米,靠叶茎攀爬在附着物上生存,叶对生,3-9个毛尖形或卵圆形叶片,叶片在生长期是深绿色,秋天变为紫红色,花朵直径5-10cm,在10-15cm长的叶腋处伸出,有4-8个卵形或圆形的微小苞片,苞片微微卷起,淡黄色,外面有浅绿色中心状条纹,秋天花朵变成浅黄绿色,花朵迷人魅力在于从深红色到深紫色一系列花色组成的雄蕊,深黑紫色的花药,由一些美丽的花丝组成,这些花丝的底部是白色,顶部是紫罗兰色,基部是白色。花朵从嫩枝上发出,花期在花园中是6月到9月,在无霜寒冷区,一般是5月初到12月末,花开放和衰败都很慢,它们释放美丽达几个星期之久。
                               
There are two cultivars of the species that are most commonly encountered in cultivation:

Clematis florida var. flore-pleno (syn. Clematis florida 'Alba', 'Alba Plena', 'Plena', 'Flore Pleno') boasts the most double and arguably the most beautiful flowers of all double flowered clematis. They are of 8-10 cm across with white tepals arranged in a very regular rosette pattern. All the stamens are converted into staminodes that are almost identical with tepals - lanceolate, white, sometimes shaded with green (especially in autum) and have a pale green central bar on the outer side. The growing habit, foliage and flowering period is similar to those of the species. According to Christopher Grey-Wilson it can be found growing in the wild in the mountains of the southeast part of the Yunan Province, China, scrambling through scrub at an altitude of about 1700 m. It's been grown in the gardens in Japan for centuries and was brought to Europe in 1835.

Clematis florida var. sieboldiana (syn. Clematis florida var. bicolor, 'Bicolor', 'Sieboldii', 'Sieboldiana') is considered by many as the most extraordinary of all clematis. It has unusual and very attractive flowers of 10-12 cm across, comprising oval creamy-white tepals, often with a greenish bar along the center, and violet staminodes (stamens transformed into a calyx). Staminodes can vary in length and shape, but they are always slimmer and shorten than tepals. The growing habit, foliage and flowering period is similar to those of the species. This cultivar was brought to Europe from Japan by Phillipp van Siebold (after whom it is named) and was planted in the Botanic Garden in Leiden (Holland).

Both Clematis florida var. flore-pleno and Clematis florida var. sieboldiana have a tendency to produce mutations (sports) that make them resemble one another. You can often find the plants bearing flowers of both cultivars. Sometimes even one flower can possess characteristics of both cultivars, half of it looking like Clematis florida var. flore-pleno, and the other like Clematis florida var. sieboldiana.

Clematis florida and its cultivars should be pruned hard as they produce flowers on new wood. They require moist but well drained soil and a warm, sunny and wind-sheltered position. They might freeze in harsh winters so you shouldn't plant them in the regions with severe climate and in frost hollows. After planting you should top the ground with bark and further protect it with a layer of coniferous twigs. All the above-described clematis are perfect for a secluded site with plenty of sun e.g. next to a vigorous evergreen bushes. They are also suitable for growing in large containers, which allows you to move them into a cool but frost-free place (a cool greenhouse, a verandah or a winter garden) in autumn where they will continue blooming even till the end of December and keep their foliage to spring.

Clematis florida and its cultivars are ideal for interior decoration as cut flowers, staying fresh even up to 2 weeks.

Unfortunately they are difficult to propagate and their nursery cultivation is quite troublesome so in effect they are hard to find in trade. It's best to look for them in the nurseries and garden centers specializing in a wide assortment of plants.

下面是栽培中常见的两个品种,Clematis florida var. flore-pleno,别名,Clematis florida 'Alba', 'Alba Plena', 'Plena', 'Flore Pleno',中文名玉万重或者小绿,花重瓣,是重瓣花中最漂亮的品种,直径8-10cm,呈玫瑰花状排列在花萼里。所有的雄蕊退化成卵形的花被片,白色状,有时候变为绿色(尤其是秋天),外面呈浅绿色条纹状。其生活习性和开花季节与其他品种相似。据Christopher Grey-Wilson考证,在中国云南省的东南部海拔1700米的山林中有野生资源,几世纪前就被引种到日本,1835年引种到欧洲。

Clematis florida var. sieboldiana,中文名,幻紫,也是该属中很美丽的品种,花朵非常迷人,直径10-12厘米,白色花瓣,外面有浅绿色中心状条纹,有紫色的退化雄性花蕊(雄蕊退化成花萼),这些花蕊可以从厚度和长度上区分,但常常和花被片相似甚至比它更短,生长习性和花期也类似于其他品种,该品种被Phillipp van Siebold从日本引进到欧洲(学名也因他名字而命名),种植在荷兰的莱顿植物园里。

这两个品种都有相近的遗传体系,因此很难区分它们,经常发现同一品种上开出的花有两个品种的特点。甚至有时在同一朵花上就出现两个品种的特性。这两个品种中,几乎一半的植株都互相有对方的特点。

佛罗里达铁线莲的修剪很难掌握,因为它们总是在新枝条上开花。喜湿润但排水良好的土壤,环境要求温暖,光照充足,避风。在气候恶劣的冬天里可能休眠,所以不能移栽种植在恶劣环境条件下和冷冻的洼地中的品种,栽种后应该用树皮覆盖在表层土壤上,用松树叶做个保护层,上文提到的两个铁线莲品种最好种植在阳光充足的环境,毗邻于郁郁葱葱的常绿灌木丛。它们也可以种植在大的容器中,移栽到冷而无霜的地方(冷房,花廊,或冬天花园中),在秋天它们可以持续开花到12月末并且保持绿色直到春天。

佛罗里达铁线莲也可以像鲜切花一样做室内装饰品,观赏期可达两个星期。不幸的是它们的繁殖很困难,生长苗圃也很难维持,所以实际上在市面上很难见到,最好到专类园或者品种繁多的野生园中找到。

注:该类型铁线莲不耐寒,在北方应盆栽,置于0度以上的地方越冬。