铁线莲专题站

意大利型(Viticella Group)

作者:Szczepan Marczyński  翻译:李伟
 
After years of fascination with large-flowered Clematis, recently the small-flowered varieties from the Viticella Group , originating from native to Southern Europe Clematis viticella (Italian Clematis), have finally come up in the world. They thrive both in a hot Mediterranean climate and in the coolness of Northern Europe. Preferring sunny areas they shouldn't be planted in shade or over a north facing wall, but will settle for moderate or even poor soil. These varieties are healthier and less prone to "clematis wilt", the most dangerous disease of large-flowered varieties.

在大花铁线莲流行几十年后,最近来自欧洲南部当地的Clematis viticella(意大利铁线莲)的小花型铁线莲品种开始成为主流。它们在热的地中海气候和欧洲北部寒冷的气候下都能健壮生长。性喜阳,不要种在荫蔽处或墙北,可以在低肥甚至贫瘠土壤种植。这些品种抗病性强,很少得对大花铁线莲危害最大的枯萎病。

The plants are easy to use in a variety of ways. They are excellent for beginning gardeners and those who dream of a beautiful garden but lack time for garden work. They may be of interest to connoisseurs looking for original plants at the same time being suitable for growing in public places. Varieties from this group are vigorous growers (on average they reach a height of 3 m and some even as much as 5 m) and their profuse and long blooming fully makes up for smaller flower stature. Leaves, composed of 5-7 leaflets, are smaller than those of large-flowered varieties but are healthier and often stay green until frost (in particular ‘Polish Spirit’ with deep green foliage).

意大利铁线莲很适合于庭院景观应用,它们非常适合于园艺初学者和没时间打理花园的爱好者,它们或许会吸引那些探寻植物起源且想引种到园林应用中的专业人士。这些品种长势很好(平均高度达3米,有些甚至高达5米),它们花期长且开花特多,整个植株都布满小花。花瓣有5-7个瓣片组成,比大花铁线莲小很多,但是健壮且绿色持久直到霜冻期。(尤其品种‘Polish Spirit’,叶色深绿)


Clematis viticella and all of its small flowered descendants bloom in summer and autumn on the current year's shoots and should be hard-pruned to within 20-40 cm of the ground in the early spring (February - March). When cut back just above ground level they will also shoot up. The possibility of hard-pruning facilitates cultivation, especially among other plants and in a severe climate. Even when all stems freeze, new shoots will spring up and in summer time abound with flowers.

意大利铁线莲以及其后代,均为小型化,花期都是从夏天到秋天,当年枝条上开花,早春(2-3月)应进行地面20-40厘米强剪,若强剪到地面,它们也会抽芽。重剪可以减轻养护要求,尤其是恶劣环境下和其它物混种时。即使枝条在冬季都冻死,新芽也会萌发且夏天时花满枝头。

Flowers are usually the shape of an open, slightly nodding bell measuring between 4 and 13 cm. Clematis viticella has flowers a bluish violet, and numerous cultivars related to it may have blossoms in various shades of white, blue, violet, mauve-pink and red. The flower has most often four tepals, the number varying among some cultivars to 5 or 6 (e.g. ‘Etoile Violette’) or even several dozen, arranged in several layers in double-flowered hybrids (e.g. ‘Purpurea Plena Elegans’).

花型大多是开放的微低垂铃形,花茎4-13厘米,意大利铁线莲的原种是蓝紫色,也育出了很多花色多样的栽培品种,有白色,蓝色,紫罗兰色,淡紫色和红色的各种渐变颜色。大多数花有4个花瓣,有的品种有5-6个(如‘Etoile Violette’),在重瓣花品种中甚至排列基层达到几十个(如‘Purpurea Plena Elegans’典雅紫)。
                                                                        
Clematis from the Viticella Group share the common trait of great adaptability to various garden uses. They can be trained over different kinds of supports to which they can cling with curling petioles (trellises, pillars, poles and arches) forming colorful spots the main parts of the garden. They are excellent for growing over fences, especially wire meshes, which they cover with a thick layer of leaves and flowers. They give a spectacular display when grown up the trees, among roses or small shrubs, adorning their hosts with abundant blossoms in the time of their limited attractiveness or beautifully blending with their foliage. Container growing on balconies and terraces is also a possibility if the container is sufficiently large, a long and strong support is provided and the plant has enough room for its vigorous shoots. They are particularly useful for interior decoration as their cut flowers kept in water stay fresh for a long time.

意大利铁线莲具很强的适应性和多种庭院景观应用方式,它们靠叶柄攀附在各种支撑物上(格架,支架,杆子和拱门),组成花园中多彩的景色。若攀附在栅栏上更好尤其是金属网上,花和叶片连成厚厚的一层。它们可以长得很大,混杂在玫瑰和灌木丛中是很壮观的景象,在花期,它们用丰富多彩的花色或优美的株型来装饰着主人的居所。适合容器栽培放置在阳台和台阶旁,若有足够大的容器,长而坚固的支撑物,足够的生长空间,让它充分的生长。它们很适合于做室内切花装饰,插在水中可以保鲜很长一段时间。

Some classify to the Viticella Group also plants that are only distantly related to clematis viticella (e.g. ‘Błękitny Anioł’, ‘Dominika’, ‘Ville de Lyon’) but it isn't so in the official naming register. It seems worthwhile to mention some of the most widely used cultivars belonging to the species or a group of Viticellas:
•        ‘Abundance’
•        ‘Alba Luxurians’
•        ‘Betty Corning’
•        ‘Emilia Plater’
•        ‘Etoile Violette’
•        ‘Huldine’
•        ‘Kermesina’
•        ‘Little Nell’
•        ‘Mme Julia Correvon’
•        ‘Minuet’
•        ‘Polish Spirit’
•        ‘Prince Charles’
•        Purpurea Plena Elegans’
•        ‘Royal Velours’
•        ‘Venosa Violacea’
•       
       还有一些归为Viticella Group 但是亲缘关系与clematis viticella远(‘Błękitny Anioł’, ‘Dominika’, ‘Ville de Lyon’)的品种,但没有国际上正式命名。以下是常见的意大利铁线莲品种。

•        ‘Abundance’
•        ‘Alba Luxurians’
•        ‘Betty Corning’
•        ‘Emilia Plater’
•        ‘Etoile Violette’
•        ‘Huldine’
•        ‘Kermesina’
•        ‘Little Nell’
•        ‘Mme Julia Correvon’
•        ‘Minuet’
•        ‘Polish Spirit’
•        ‘Prince Charles’
•        Purpurea Plena Elegans’
•        ‘Royal Velours’
•        ‘Venosa Violacea’

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