铁线莲专题站

德克萨斯型(Texensis Group)

作者:Szczepan Marczyński  翻译:李伟

I have yet to meet a garden lover who would not succumb to a bewitching charm of Clematis texensis and its hybrids. Even though I have been growing them for years I still rediscover their beauty again and again.

我曾经遇见一个园艺爱好者,他对Clematis texensis的美无动于衷,纵然如此,我到目前已经种植很多年了,可是,我依然不断地发现他们的魅力。

Clematis texensis flowers have unusual shape of an elongated jug or an egg, open at the top and made up of 4 fancifully twisted tepals. The outer side of the tepals can be anything from deep red to orange red, and the inner side is most frequently creamy yellow or pink-red but you can also find the scarlet ones. Leaves are blue-green. The plant is a climbing semi-perennial - only the base of the stems is woody. Stems reach up to 3 m and twine around the supports by leaf petioles

Clematis texensis的花有奇特的形状,有长水壶状或鸡蛋状,在顶端开花,花朵由4个反卷花瓣组成,花瓣外部从深红色到橙红色,内部一般是乳脂状的黄色或粉红色,也有鲜红色的,叶片青绿色,攀援植物,植株基部是木质化,茎长可达3米,通过叶柄缠绕支撑物生长。

Clematis texensis is native to Texas, the USA. It came to Europe in 1868 under the name Clematis coccinea (on account of its red flowers) and right away it kindled avid interest of both breeders and garden lovers. As it's almost impossible to propagate the species vegetatively (cuttings, grafts,...) you can't find it in trade. Rare specimens in private collections are bred from seeds gathered at isolated nurseries, and seeds germinate only after 1-2 years. Fortunately, crossing the species with other clematis strains resulted in a number of attractive hybrids with tulip-shaped flowers that can be vegetatively propagated and found in garden centers. As they are repeated multi-species hybrids, they are classified into the Texensis Group, and not as cultivars of Clematis texensis. The first hybrids were bred by an English breeder - Artur George Jackman. Through crossing Clematis texensis with Clematis 'Star of India' he produced and in 1890 introduced to the market 6 new cultivars, two of which are still cultivated and highly valued - pink 'Duchess of Albany' and deep crimson-red 'Sir Trevor Lawrence'. As early as in 1903 the French nursery Lemoine et fils introduced the next clematis from the group - 'Etoile Rose' with pink, bell-shaped flowers. It was obtained through crossing Clematis x globulosa (a hybrid species received in the same nursery through a cross of Clematis hirsutissima var. scottii with Clematis texensis) and Clematis viticella. A few years later the renowned clematis breeder Francisque Morel produced 'Gravetye Beauty' - a hybrid with remarkably rich red flowers - by crossing Clematis texensis with one of large-flowered cultivars (it was most probably 'Gipsy Queen', 'Comtesse de Bouchaud' or 'Ville de Lyon', though we do not know it exactly). The next well-known hybrid from the Texensis Group didn't appear until 1984, raised by the Englishman Berry Fretwell as a cross of Clematis texensis with Clematis 'Bees Jubilee'. This intense pink clematis was named at first 'The Princess of Wales', but as it was frequently confused with the old Jackman's cultivar 'Princess of Wales' it was renamed in 1996 the 'Princess Diana'.

Clematis texensis原产于美国的德克萨斯州,我因慕名Clematis coccinea(花为红色)的美丽于1868年到达欧洲,它们能立刻激起园艺工作者和园艺爱好者的兴趣。因它们无法用常规繁殖(扦插、嫁接),所以在市场上很难见到。人们往往到专类园中私下地收集它们的种子,且种子在1-2年后才能萌发。幸亏这些品种能和其他品种杂交出一系列具有迷人百合形状的可常规生长繁殖且花店有售的品种。

因为它们之间不断地多重杂交,所以产生了一系列杂交种为Texensis Group而不Clematis texensis栽培品种。英国育种家Artur George Jackman.育出第一批杂种,他用Clematis texensis和印度品种Clematis 'Star '杂交,在1890年向世界推出6个新品种,其中具有很高观赏价值的两个品种,粉红色'Duchess of Albany' 和深红色 'Sir Trevor Lawrence'.目前仍在栽植。

早在1903年,法国苗圃就引进了粉红色的铃形花'Etoile Rose',是Clematis x globulosa(同一苗圃中Clematis hirsutissima var. scottii 和 Clematis texensis的杂交种)和Clematis viticella.的杂交种。几年后著名的育种家Francisque Morel育出了有鲜红色花朵的'Gravetye Beauty',是由Clematis texensis和大花品种之一杂交而成(不确定但是'Gipsy Queen', 'Comtesse de Bouchaud','Ville de Lyon',中的一种)。直到1984年英国人Berry Fretwell才育出著名品种Texensis Group,是Clematis texensis 和Clematis 'Bees Jubilee'的杂交种,这个具有鲜明粉红色的品种起初命名为'The Princess of Wales',由于经常同老品种'Princess of Wales'混淆,所以1996年改名为'Princess Diana'。

Clematis from the Texensis Group reach up to 2-3 m and bloom in summer and early autumn (VII - IX) on new wood. The most compact ones are 'Etoile Rose' and 'Princess Diana'. Flowers are generally upward-facing and, with the exception of 'Etoile Rose' and 'Odoriba' which their nodding, bell-shaped blossoms, resemble lily-shaped tulips. They are made up of usually four or, as in case of 'Duchess of Albany' and 'Gravetye Beauty', 5 or 6 tough-textured tepals.

Despite its hot-climate origins Clematis texensis as well as its hybrids perform well in a cooler climate readily tolerating winter conditions. They are at their best in a well-lit position and are suitable for growing up all kinds of garden supports, arbors, gates and pergolas. They look particularly attractive growing through other climbers, shrubs or small trees. If you plant them near a path, a bench, a door or a window, you will get the opportunity of admiring their lovely flowers from close up.

Texensis Group,高2-3米,新枝条上开花,花期从早春到夏天,株型最紧凑的品种是'Etoile Rose' and 'Princess Diana',这些品种的花朵大多向上,只有'Etoile Rose' and 'Odoriba'是低垂的铃形花,类似百合形的郁金香,它们通常有4个粗糙织纹的被片,只有'Duchess of Albany' and 'Gravetye Beauty'有5-6片。

尽管Clematis texensis及其杂交种产自热带地区,但在较冷地区生长良好,抵抗冬天的寒冷。光照充足的环境下长势最好,适合种植于各种花园,攀附在大门,支架,和藤架上。种在灌木,小树等其他附着物上尤其美丽。如果种在小路旁,长凳旁,门旁,或窗边,将欣赏到它们花团锦簇的非凡魅力。

You should plant them 5 - 10 cm deeper than they used to grow in a container. The ground within 1 m from the plant should be covered with a thick layer of mulch. It will protect the roots from the frost and prevent the soil from drying out. The stems of all the clematis from the Texensis group are woody only at the base and will die down to the ground during harsh winter. This does not pose a problem, however, as these cultivars are best pruned at ground level in earl spring (late February - March) anyway, for the most attractive stems grow out of numerous underground buds. The main flaw of the clematis from the Texensis Group is a high susceptibility to powdery mildew, but you can diminish the risk of disease significantly by planting them in well-drained soil in a sunny spot with good air circulation, and by providing constant water supply. Chemical treatment is the most effective if done soon after the first symptoms have been noticed - red-brown spots on leaves, or white coating over the surfaces of leaves, young shoots or flowers. Spray the plant with one of currently recommended fungicides e.g. Rubigan 12 EC (0,03% concentration), Saprol 190 EC (0,15% concentration), or Baycor 300 EC (0,2% concentration). Repeat the application 2-3 times at 10-day intervals, changing the fungicide.

地栽时应比容器栽培苗深5-10厘米,四周一平米范围内的地面上应该铺上厚厚的园艺覆盖物,使根免受霜冻和保持土壤保湿,所有的Clematis from the Texensis Group,基部都是木质化的,在严酷的冬天全部死亡,虽然不会影响生长,但最好在早春进行基部修剪(2月末到早春),它们的地下芽会长出优美的枝条。缺点是易感白粉病,若种在向阳,通风良好,固定水源,排水良好土壤的环境下,会减小发病率。植株上第一次出现下列症状,如叶片上有棕红色斑点,叶片表面,嫩芽,花朵上有白色粉末状物质时,及时用化学药品处理也可很好的控制白粉病的发生。目前常用喷雾杀菌剂,有林氯苯基对氯苯基嘧啶甲醇EC12(浓度0.03%),SaprolEC190(浓度0.15%)或Baycor EC 300(浓度0.2%),隔10天喷洒一次,喷2-3次,不同杀菌剂混用。

Cultivars:

'Duchess of Albany' has tulip-shaped flowers of 5 cm in length, deep pink outside and pale pink within, with a deep pink stripe along the midrib of each tepal. Yellow anthers set on creamy filaments are visible only after the flower has fully opened.
  
'Etoile Rose' - bell-shaped, nodding, flowers of about 3 cm in diameter, deep pink outside, the inside of the tepals pale pink with a deep pink, sometimes almost red bar. Stamens are made up of pale yellow anthers on white filaments. This cultivar is sometimes classified as a member of the Viticella Group on account of its close kinship with Italian Clematis.
  
'Gravetye Beauty' has unusual flowers, shaped like lily-flowered tulips of 6 cm in length and 8 cm across when fully open. Rich ruby red on the outside, velvety, bright crimson on the inside, with pale pink stripes on the outer edges of the tepals, clearly visible on opening. Flowers open much wider than other texensis types, revealing red anthers on white filaments.
  
'Odoriba' - a hybrid raised in 1990 by the Japanese breeder Kazushige Ozawa as a cross between Clematis crispa and Clematis viorna, both closely related to Clematis texensis. As a result of this provenance it is sometimes classified as belonging to the Texensis Group, though most frequently it's put in the separate Viorna Group . It has bell-shaped, slightly nodding flowers of about 2 cm across, intensely pink outside and on the margins of the inner side of the tepals, with a white bar along the midrib. Yellow-green anthers. Free-flowering over a long period.
  
'Princess Diana' has tulip-shaped flowers of 6 cm in length, almost red outside. On opening the tepals spread outwards revealing the inner side that is pale pink at margins and vividly pink along the midrib. Nicely contrasting yellow anthers.
  
'Sir Trevor Lawrence' has tulip-shaped flowers of about 5 cm in length. The inner side of the tepals is crimson-red at the edges and bright scarlet at the center. When fully open they expose attractively contrasting yellow anthers on creamy filaments.
     
栽培品种

'Duchess of Albany',花长5厘米,郁金香形状,外面深红色,里面浅粉色,被片中心有深红色条纹,花朵完全绽放时可见乳脂状花丝顶生黄色花药。

'Etoile Rose',花直径3厘米,低垂铃铛形,外面深红色,被片内部有浅红色和深红色相间(有时全红)的条纹,白色花丝顶着浅黄色花药,此种有时因和意大利铁线莲的亲缘关系而被列为the Viticella Group。

'Gravetye Beauty',花形奇特,像百合形状的郁金香,全开放时长6厘米,直径8厘米,外面呈鲜亮红宝石颜色,内部呈天鹅绒质感般的明亮鲜红色,盛开时可见浅红色条纹状花边,花比texensis types的大,白色花丝顶着鲜红色花药。

'Odoriba'是1990年由日本育种家Kazushige Ozawa通过Clematis crispa和Clematis viorna杂交而得,因母本和父本与Clematis texensis.非常接近,所以有时会被分类到Texensis Group,但有时也会单独地列为Viorna Group,花朵呈下垂铃铛性,直径2厘米,外面鲜红色,被片内部边缘有白色条纹沿叶片中脉方向排列,黄绿色花药,花期很长。

'Princess Diana',郁金香形状,长6厘米,外面几乎全红,完全开放时,被片向外伸开,露出粉红色的里面,边缘鲜红色,沿叶中脉方向分布,与鲜黄色的花药形成鲜明对比。

'Sir Trevor Lawrence',郁金香形,花长5厘米,被片内缘深红色,里面深红色,完全开放时,黄色花蕊和乳脂状花丝形成明显对比。