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铁线莲枯萎病防治资料(中英文)

铁线莲相当容易生长,无需太多照顾。铁线莲枯萎病是个例外。这是个很挫败的问题,因为专家们对铁线莲枯萎病及控制办法还没有清晰一致的见解。即使有枯萎病的威胁,铁线莲仍能很好地成长,在健壮的藤蔓上开出难以置信的花朵。

铁线莲枯萎病的征兆是什么?枯萎病对植株的影响非常突然,常会使健康、丰满的植株在短短几天内完全枯萎,变成褐色。典型的枯萎病会一次波及整株植物,但有时也会限于植株的单枝或一定范围。铁线莲枯萎病常常发生在初夏到仲夏这段时期。

这个问题是怎么产生的?即使是明确的原因也被专家们质疑。表面原因是菌类,但为何一株得病而另一株没事却是个谜。吉姆.费斯克,攀援皇后铁线莲的专家,提出了一个看起来最有可能的解释。他提出,铁线莲枯萎病并非简单的真菌感染,而是当植株长满叶子并且天气恶劣时,茎干未能成功运送足够的水分到叶。菌类是之后发生的,而不是其成因。这有助于解释为何在某些年份铁线莲枯萎病比其它年份更厉害。

一些其它可能的解释是什么?一度,人们坚信枯萎病能通过嫁接来传播,但是,几乎不再嫁接铁线莲了,而枯萎病仍然存在。一些专家相信它是几种真菌之一侵入受伤或受损的弱茎所致,常见的例如被风吹受损。

这一直是铁线莲的一个问题吗?最早的铁线莲枯萎病的资料似乎在出现在19世纪未20世纪初。它成了如此广泛的问题,大多数铁线莲栽培者都已经放弃了,直到广谱杀真菌剂出现。铁线莲再度流行、壮观起来,但枯萎病的问题仍然存在。

告诉我,我新种植的铁线莲如何防止枯萎病?当你种植铁线莲时,可以采取几步来减小染上枯萎病的机会,或至少使其危害减至最小。首先是正确选点,铁线莲更喜欢生长在日照充足的地方,但是其根部需要保持阴凉。如果植株的基部不能由附近生长的其它植物来遮阴,可以用有机覆盖物对根部系统进行遮盖,例如碎树叶,可可豆荚,或碎树皮。深埋是可以给铁线莲提供的另一种爱护。

到底应该种多深呢?若能把铁线莲种植得足够深,深到能使两组叶子(或叶节点)在土表以下,你就等于给加了它一份保险。把洞挖得足够深,以便头两组叶子可以完全埋入地下。小心填满细弱的茎干周围的洞。如果如此深植的铁丝莲得了枯萎病,它通常从地下开始复原。如果铁线莲枯死至地下,在该点做好标记,然后耐心等,植株可能需要两个生长季来重新萌芽。

我能改进土壤吗?铁线莲若生长在深的、富含腐殖质的土壤中,会生成得更好,并且对枯萎病有最大的抗性。你将可能需要改善土壤,除非你很幸运有大量的可直接使用的土壤。用什么取决于你的土壤类型。如果你有沙质土壤,以50/50的比例与泥炭、肥料、堆肥或其组合相混合。如果你有的是粘土,以50/50的比例与粗砂和粗糙堆肥混合。应避免在粘土中加入泥炭,否则会保持太多水份,导致根系溺毙或腐烂。

如果枯萎病的得因是藤蔓运送水份不力,我是否能做点什么?确保在植株种下以前已经充分浸泡,且缠绕的根系已解开。当植物进入初夏,长满叶子和蓓蕾,要确保有规律地浇灌它。水要浇透浇深,但要避免土壤积水。到底浇多少水取决于土壤类型。沙质土壤即使表面潮湿,地下30-40厘米深的地方却常常是干燥的,所以浇透水是关键。

如果我的铁线莲得了枯萎病,我是否能做点什么?一旦你确定铁线莲是得了枯萎病,并且已经造成了永久损害,除掉所有受损和死亡的茎和叶。要非常小心,一定不要伤害到那些依然可活的脆弱茎,特别是植株基部。清除完毕,确保它已彻底浇透。用内吸性杀真菌剂湿透土壤和植物基部。

对已经在生长的铁线莲,我能做什么来防止枯萎病?作为一种预防措施,可以在早春新叶长出以前使用内吸性杀真菌剂,生长季节每月一次,秋天清理完落叶后再用一次。确保它水份充足,特别是在酷热的季节。在沙质、排水良好的土壤中,给铁线莲用水溶肥来施肥,例如含磷多的开花肥,从春天到仲秋每两三周施一次。在厚重土壤中,可减少施用肥次数(每三四周一次),或使用某种全效花园颗粒肥,例如Bachman的 Garden Food 10-20-10。

英文如下:

Clematis are relatively easy to grow and care free. The one exception is clematis wilt. It is a frustrating problem because there doesn't seem to be any clear understanding or consensus among the experts about clematis wilt and what you can do to try to manage the problem. Even with the threat of wilt, clematis are well worth growing, offering incredible blooms on vigorous vines.

What are the symptoms of clematis wilt? Wilt affects plants very suddenly, frequently going from a healthy, full plant to totally wilted and brown in just a few days. It typically hits the whole plant at one time, but sometimes it is limited to the foliage attached to a single stem or area. Clematis wilt most frequently shows up in early to mid-summer.

What causes this problem? Even the exact cause is debated by the experts. The apparent cause is a fungus, but why one plant gets it and another doesn't is a mystery. What seems to be the most likely explanation has been offered by Jim Fisk, author of Clematis, Queen of the Climbers. He theorizes that clematis wilt isn't simply a fungal infection, but a failure of the stems to carry enough water to the foliage when the plants are in full leaf and the weather is stressful. The fungus might be after the fact, instead of the cause. This would help explain why clematis wilt is much worse some years than others.

What are some of the other possible explanations? At one time, wilt was believed to be transmitted by grafting, but clematis is seldom grafted any more and wilt is still a problem. Some experts believe it is one of several fungal diseases that enters weakened stems that have been injured or cracked, often simply by the wind.

Has it always been a problem with clematis? The earliest references to clematis wilt seem to be around the turn of the century. It became such an extensive problem that until the advent of broad spectrum fungicides, most clematis growers had given up. Clematis are once again popular and spectacular, but wilt can still be a problem.

Tell me what I can do to help prevent wilt on new clematis that I am planting. When you are planting clematis, there are several steps you can take to minimize the chance of getting wilt, or at least minimize how much damage it might do. Start by siting the clematis correctly. It prefers to grow where it will receive full day sun, but the roots need to remain cool. If the base of the plant is not shaded by something growing nearby, this can be accomplished by mulching the root system with an organic mulch such as shredded leaves, cocoa bean hulls or shredded bark. Another advantage you can give the clematis is to plant it deeply.

Exactly how deep should it be planted? When you plant clematis deep enough to put two sets of leaves (or leaf nodes) under the surface of the soil, you give the plant an insurance policy. Dig the hole deep enough to allow the first two sets of leaves to be completely underground. Fill the hole carefully around the slender, brittle stems. If a clematis planted this deeply is hit by wilt, it will usually come back from below the ground. If the clematis dies down to the ground, mark the spot and be patient, it may take up to two growing seasons for the plant to re-sprout.

Should I amend the soil? Clematis will grow best and be the most resistant to wilt if it is grown in deep, humus-rich soil. Unless you are fortunate to have great soil, you will probably need to amend the soil. What you use will depend on your type of soil. If you have sandy soil, mix it 50/50 with peat moss, manure, compost or a combination of these. If you have a clay soil, mix it 50/50 with coarse sand and coarse compost. Avoid adding peat moss to clay soils since it may retain so much water that the roots drown or rot.

If the wilt is caused by the vine's inability to carry enough water, is there anything I can do to help? Be sure the plant is soaked before you plant it and make sure any circling roots have been loosened. As the plant enters early summer full of leaves and buds, be sure it is watered regularly. Water it thoroughly and deeply, but avoid keeping the soil soggy. Just how much water will depend on the soil type. Often sandy soils will be dry a foot or so down even when the surface is damp, so thorough watering is essential.

If my clematis gets wilt, is there anything I can do? Once you have determined the clematis has wilt and has sustained permanent damage, remove all the damaged leaves and stems including those that have fallen. Be extremely careful not to injure any delicate stems that are still viable, especially at the base of the plant. After cleaning it up, make sure it is thoroughly watered. Drench the soil and base of the plant with a systemic fungicide.

Is there anything I can do to try to prevent wilt on the clematis I already have growing? As a precaution, a systemic fungicide should be applied in early spring before the new leaves emerge, monthly throughout the growing season and again in the fall after you have cleaned up the fallen leaves. Make sure it stays well-watered, especially during the hot, stressful parts of the season. In sandy well-drained soils, fertilize clematis with a water-soluble food such as Bachman's Mighty Bloomä every 2-3 weeks from spring until mid-August. In heavier soils, either fertilize less often (every 3-4 weeks) with Mighty Bloomä or use an all-purpose granular garden fertilizer such as Bachman's Garden Food 10-20-10.